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Matter, derived from the Latin materia, is a type of mass-energy. <ref>Pauling, L. (1988). General chemistry. Courier Dover Publications.</ref> The definition of matter is anything which has mass and occupies space. This definition can be expanded by the classifying the matter as mixtures or pure substances and relate the different models of an atom's structure to matter. Matter is also found in different forms (called phases or states of matter).

States of Matter

The six different forms of matter are; solids, liquids, gas, plasma, filament, and Bose-Einstein. The properties of solids are that these solids have a definite shape, volume, and mass.<ref>L. Körtvélyessy(2001). six states of matter. February 6, 2009, from http://www.electric-universe.de/Scripts/six_states.html</ref> <ref name="Melissa"> Melissa. (2000). Solids. Retrieved February 3, 2009, http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Graduate/TI/pages/LEWIS/solids.htm </ref> The properties of liquids are that these liquids have definite mass and volume, but not a definite shape. <ref name="Melissa" /> Gas doesn't have a definite shape, mass, or volume. <ref name="Melissa" />

Historical Overview

The concept of matter has changed dramatically over the past two centuries. First matter consists of a basic substances, the element, with defined physical and chemical properties. Initially, atoms were believed to the be the basic building blocks of matter. With the discovery of different subatomic particles, the complexity of the atom created debates regarding its structure. The latest model of the atom is the Standard Model.

Atomic Models

Main article: The Atomic Models

As previously stated, models of the atom has changed the years. The original model can be traced back to ancient Greece.

Atomic models allow chemists to explain, describe, and predict scientific results. <ref>David Young</ref> A model is a representation of a set of observations and may be physical or visual.

Further Reading

Particle Physics


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