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Chemical Bonds


Chemical bonds are forces between valence electrons holding atoms together to form molecules. <ref> Carpi, Anthony. (2003).Chemical Bonding. Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=55 </ref>. Atoms may transfer or share electrons, and either process may provide for a stable arrangement of electrons between the atoms that result in the formation of molecules. <ref> Jones, Larry. (2007). Chemical Bonding. Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://www.sciencebyjones.com/chemical_bonding.htm </ref>


History

In the early years of chemical bonding revolved around a man named Gilbert Newton Lewis. <ref> Family Homes Network. (2008). Chemical Bonds Facts. Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://www.familyhomesnetwork.com </ref> This was also the time that the atomic theory was in theory. Chemical bond is a force that holds groups two or more atoms and make them function as on unit. <ref>Zumdahl, S.S., Zumdahl, S. L., DeCoste, D. J. (2006). World of Chemistry. Houghton Mifflin Company.</ref> Some thing about the covalent bonding like sharing electrons. Also some other bonding is polar covalent bond is a bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts them more strongly then the other <ref>Zumdahl, S.S., Zumdahl, S. L., DeCoste, D. J. (2006). World of Chemistry. Houghton Mifflin Company. A52</ref>.

There is also more bonding that is going on. There is bond polarity and Dipole moments <ref> Vick, Linda H. (1998). Molecules and Chemical Bonds. Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://campus.northpark.edu/biology/cell/chembonds.html</ref>. For the people that don't know what a dipole moment is a property of a molecule where by the charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge.<ref>the world of chemistry page.364</ref> There is also ionic bonding is the attraction between oppositely charged ions. Which means that the ions can charged with opposite charge such as a negative and positive charge,and they will attract <ref> Decelles, Paul. (2006). Chemical Bonds. Retrieved February 5,2009 from http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/chemistry/bonds.html </ref>.There is also a bonding pair this is an electron pair found in the space between two atom.<ref>the world of chemistry- page A47-glossary</ref>.

There is also a lone pair or sometimes they are called unshared pairs <ref> Lower, Stephen. (2002). Chemical Bond Properties. Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb01.html </ref> The reason that they are called unshared pairs is that not always the electrons are able to bond and the bonds are not connected to anything. A triple bond is where there is three electrons bonding.nonmetals is an element that does not exhibit metallic characteristics and metals is an element that gives up electrons relatively easily to lustrous, malleable,and it works really well with heat,a good conductor. <ref>Zumdahl, S.S., Zumdahl, S. L., DeCoste, D. J. (2006). World of Chemistry. Houghton Mifflin Company.</ref> Also that chemical bonding last for a while until there is more electrons bonding together.

Intramolecular Forces

Main article: Intramolecular_force


Intramolecular forces are interactions within a molecule. Intramolecular forces are known as chemical bonds. Three main types of intramolecular forces exist.

  1. Ionic Bonds
  2. Covalent Bonds
  3. Metallic Bonds


Ionic Bonds

Main article: Ionic Bonds


Ionic bonds involve the transfer of valence electrons between cations and anions. This type of chemical bond usually forms between a metal and a non-metal. The difference in electronegativity values between the metal and non-metal determines the extent of the bond.

Covalent Bonds

Main article: Covalent Bonds


Covalent bonds involve the sharing of valence electrons between nonmetals.

The bonding of electrons is a very important factor in chemistry, because it makes up the world around us. <ref>Zumdahl, S.S., Zumdahl, S. L., DeCoste, D. J. (2006). World of Chemistry. Houghton Mifflin Company.p. 360</ref> Unlike ionic bonding, which bonds nonmetals and metals, covalent bonding bonds nonmetals with themselves. CITATION REQUIRED In some cases a bonding pair does not share electrons properly in that case, one atom is a stronger attractor than the other. <ref>Zumdahl, S.S., Zumdahl, S. L., DeCoste, D. J. (2006). World of Chemistry. Houghton Mifflin Company. pg.361,Pg.A 52 </ref>

Metallic Bonds

Main article: Metallic Bonds


Bonding in metals is uniquely different from covalent and ionic bonds due to the delocalized nature of valence electrons over several atoms. The attractive force between the positive centers of the metals and the sea of electrons forms a metallic bond.


Intermolecular Forces

Main article: Intermolecular Forces


Intermolecular forces are interactions between stable molecules or between functional groups of macromolecules.

  1. The weakest of intermolecular forces are van der Waals forces also known as London Dispersion Forces.
  2. Dipole-dipole interactions
  3. Hydrogen bonding


Lewis Dot Structures

Main article: Lewis_Dot_Structures


G.N. Lewis developed a means to describe the valence electrons of atoms involved in bonds. There are six basic steps to solving a Lewis structure.


Chemical Bonds (Standards: CH2. a-e)


Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds from electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules.

Students should know the differences between Compounds and Molecules

Further Reading

CH2 Framework
CH2 Vocabulary

References

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