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Absolute zero

Things to Remember
Zero Kelvin has never been reached in a laboratory environment. The lowest recorded temperature is 500 PK (Picokelvin). <ref>Cooling Bose-Einstein Condensates Below 500 Picokelvin</ref>

Absolute zero is the zero point temperature in Kelvin and Rankine temperature scales in which there is no motion. As heat is added to the system then motion increases, and may be measured by a thermometer.

Scale Value
Kelvin 0 K
Rankine 0 R
Celsius -273.15 °C
Fahrenheit −459.67 °F

Temperature Scales

main article: Temperature Scales

Comparison of temperature scales

Three main scales are discussed in chemistry.

  1. Fahrenheit: Part of the system of English Units and commonly used in the USA.
  2. Kelvin: The SI Unit for fundamental temperature scale.
  3. Celsius: The common temperature scale for most of the world.

Celsius and Kelvin are used in many chemistry calculations.

  1. Kelvin degrees (i. e., temperature differences on the Kelvin scale) are the same as Celsius degrees).
  2. Absolute zero was originally proposed by Joseph Lambert in 1779

Temperature Scale Conversions

  1. Water freezes at 273.15 K (i. e., on the Kelvin scale), so to convert from Celsius to Kelvin, you add 273.15.
  2. To convert from Kelvin to Celsius, you subtract 273.15.


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